A âbusiness cycleâ refers to the periodic expansion and contraction of a nationâs economy. Also known as an âeconomic cycle,â it tracks the different stages of growth and decline in a countryâs gross domestic product, or economic activity.
business cycles . Each business cycle is dated from peak to peak or trough to trough of economic activity.
During the expansion phase of the business cycle, GDP increases and the economy grows. This phase tends to be significantly longer than the contraction phase. Since 1945, the average expansion has been 65 months, while the average contraction has lasted 11 months, according to a congressional research report. Features of expansion periods include:
• GDP growth rate of 2-3%
• Inflation around 2%
• Unemployment between 3.5-4.5%
• Bullish stock market
• Increased demand for goods and services
• Interest rates move higher
• Job creation
• Stock prices usually increase
• Increased wages
• Increased real estate values
As economic growth slows down, an economic contraction begins as the nation enters a recession. GDP growth dips below 2% in this phase.
Companies that have taken out loans may struggle to repay them, so they have to lay off workers and slow down production. As workers lose jobs, they have to cut down on spending. This creates a cycle of economic decline. Features of contraction periods include:
• GDP growth falls below 2%
• Decreased demand for goods and services
• Interest rates move lower, making it easier to borrow money
• Loss of jobs, increased unemployment
• Reduced wages because people need jobs so theyâre willing to work for less, and companies canât pay as much
• Stock prices usually decline
• Real estate values plateau or decline
One definition of a recession is two consecutive quarters with a decline in real GDP. A recession could actually be defined more broadly as a period where there is significant decline in economic activity throughout the entire economy.
During this stage, GDP, profits, sales, and economic activity decline. Credit is tight for both consumers and businesses due to the policies set during the last business cycle. This leads to shifts in monetary policy that lead to a recovery phase. Itâs a vicious cycle of falling production, falling incomes, falling employment, and falling GDP.
The intensity of a recession is measured by looking at the three Dâs:
• Depth: The measure of peak to trough decline in sales, income, employment, and output. The trough is the lowest point the GDP reaches during a cycle. Before World War II, recessions used to be much deeper than they are now.
• Diffusion: How far the recession spreads across industries, regions, and activities.
• Duration: The amount of time between the peak and the trough.
A more severe recession is called a depression. Depressions have deeper troughs and last longer than recessions. The only depression that has happened thus far was the Great Depression, which lasted 3.5 years, beginning in 1929.
Following a recession, there tends to be a sharp recovery as growth begins to accelerate. The stock market tends to rise the most during this stage, which generally lasts about one year. Interest rates are low, so businesses and consumers can borrow more money for growth and investment. GDP begins to increase.
Just as a recession is a vicious cycle, a recovery is a virtuous cycle of rising income, rising employment, rising GDP, and rising production. And similar to the three Dâs, a recovery period, which includes Stages 2-4, is measured using three Pâs: how pronounced, pervasive, and persistent the expansion is.
This is generally the longest phase of the business cycle, with moderate growth throughout. On average the mid-cycle phase lasts three years. Monetary policies shift toward a neutral state: Interest rates are higher, credit is strong, and companies are profitable.
At this stage, economic activity reaches its highest point, and while growth continues, its pace decelerates. Monetary policies become tight due to rising inflation and low unemployment, making it harder for people to borrow money. The GDP rate begins to plateau or slow.
Companies may be engaging in reckless expansions, and investors are overconfident, which increases the price of assets beyond their actual value. Late cycles last a year and a half on average.
Historically certain industries have prospered during each stage of the business cycle.
When money is tight and people are concerned about the economy, they cut back on certain types of purchases, such as vacations and fancy clothes. Also, when people anticipate a coming recession, they tend to sell stocks and move into safer assets, causing the market to decline.
Basically, industries do better or worse depending on supply and demand, and the demand for certain products shifts throughout the business cycle. In general, the following industries perform well during each stage of the business cycle:
• Consumer staples
• Information technology
• Financial sector
• Industrial sector
• Consumer sector
• Stocks and bonds
• Real Estate
• Household durables
• Information technology
• Energy and materials
• Commodities such as oil and gas
• Bonds can be a safe haven
• Index funds
Business cycle investing is an intermediate-term strategy, since it isnât as short-term as day trading but not as long-term as buy and hold strategies. Each stage of the business cycle can last for a few months to a few years.
the best strategy for beginner investors.
However, more experienced investors might choose to shift at least a portion of their portfolio along with the business cycle. Business cycle investing can also be a good option for younger investors because they will have more opportunities to take advantage of the ups and downs of future cycles.
Understanding the business cycle can also help people make decisions such as when to buy a home or search for a job. Itâs usually best to purchase a home, start a business, or look for a job in the early to mid-stages of the cycle.
No business cycle is identical but history shows there can be a rough pattern to which industries do better as the economy expands and contracts. Investors can take cues from which stage of the business cycle the economy is in in order to allocate money to different sectors.
One great way to invest and keep track of the market is using an online investing app like SoFi InvestÂ®. The investing platform features both active and automated investing.
For help getting started, SoFi has a team of professional financial advisors available to answer questions and offer guidance.
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